The Buttpillow™ “Patented Ergonomic Seating Cushion” has a hidden wave-form cut-out that elevates the peri-anal area for individuals suffering with hemorrhoids, vaginal pain, dyspareunia, and prostatitis. The Buttpillow™ has an ergonomic wedge shape to help sitting individuals maintain the natural curve of the spine (lordosis) to minimize risk factors for low back pain, and pelvic pain. It is made with medium density open-cell foam for maximum buttock envelopment and pressure-reduction to minimize risk factors for the development of pressure sores, DVT, varicose veins, and sciatica.
Is All This Sitting . . . A Pain in the Butt?
The Buttpillow™ is designed to relieve and prevent pain and problems while sitting.
Sit on The Buttpillow™ . . . Patented “Ergonomic Seating Cushion”
The Buttpillow™ “Patented Ergonomic Seating Cushion” features:
The Buttpillow™ reduces sitting surface pressures.
It is made with medium density open-cell foam topped with soft, convoluted foam for maximum buttock envelopment and pressure reduction to minimize risk factors for the development of pressure sores, DVT, varicose veins, and sciatica.
The Buttpillow™ elevates the peri-anal area with its patented hidden “wave” peri-anal and tailbone cut-out to relieve and prevent pain associated hemorrhoids, vaginal pain, pain after childbirth, dyspareunia, and prostatitis.
The Buttpillow™ has an ergonomic wedge shape to maintain the natural curve of the spine while seated (lordosis) to reduce risk factors for low back pain caused by sitting.
Relieve and Prevent Pain & Problems While Sitting!
Chronic prostatitis is pelvic or perineal pain without evidence of urinary tract infection lasting longer than three months. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) classifies prostatitis into four syndromes. This article discusses the four prostatitis syndromes listed in the medical research and by the NIH.
Prostatitis affects half of all men
Prostatitis is a common condition affecting almost half of all men during their lifetimes. Prostatitis accounts for over two million outpatient visits every year. One percent of all primary care visits in the United States is for prostatitis.
Prostatitis – the “wastebasket of clinical ignorance”
Prostatitis has been called the “wastebasket of clinical ignorance.”
Stamey, Thomas Alexander, 1989, “Pathogenesis and Treatment of Urinary Tract Infections,” Lippincott, Williams and Wilkins
Historical confusion – the many names of Prostatitis
Prostatitis is referred to by several different names, some are proper and some describe slightly different conditions such as:
levator ani syndrome,
unspecified anorectal pain,
bladder pain syndrome,
chronic pelvic pain syndrome,
Physicians tend to manage patients with prostatitis based on a patchwork of what they learned during residency, experience, the last paper on the subject they read, and perhaps a touch of evidence.
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) occurs in women and men. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists’ (ACOG) definition applies to women. The European Association of Urologists (EAU) revised their guidelines beginning in 2009 to include women and men in their definition of chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain is a bladder pain syndrome that occurs in women and men. Urological pain syndromes in men include Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS).
Chronic pelvic pain has two different definitions:
Historically, chronic pelvic pain (CPP), was defined by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and applied to women.
In 2009, the European Association of Urology (EAU) published EAU Guidelines on Chronic Pelvic Pain. Their stated objective was “to revise guidelines for the diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of CPP patients.”
The European Association of Urologists (EAU) guidelines distinguish between gynecological, gastrointestinal and musculoskeletal pain syndromes in women and men.
In the revised guidelines published by the European Association of Urology (EAU) on Chronic Pelvic Pain, they included chapters on chronic prostate pain and bladder pain syndromes, urethral pain, scrotal pain, pelvic pain in gynecologic practice and others.
ACOG’s Definition of Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)
The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) definition of chronic pelvic pain.
“Pain lasting for six or more months that localizes to the anatomic pelvis, anterior abdominal wall at or below the umbilicus, the lumbosacral back, or the buttocks and is of sufficient severity to cause functional disability or lead to medical care. Chronic pain can come and go or it can be constant.” (1)
American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists, 2011
Chronic Pelvic Pain Continues after a Hysterectomy
“Approximately 12 percent of hysterectomies are performed for pelvic pain and 30 percent of patients who seek treatment at pain clinics have already had a hysterectomy.” (2)
Novak’s Textbook of Gynecology, 12th Ed, 1996
EAU’s Definition of Chronic Pelvic Pain (CPP)
The European Association of Urology (EAU) includes both women and men in its definition of chronic pelvic pain and defines chronic pelvic pain as follows (Ref. 2013):
“Chronic or persistent pain perceived in structures related to the pelvis of either men or women. The pain must be continuous or recurrent for at least six months.” (3)
European Association of Urology, 2013
Urological Pain Syndromes-Women / Men
When the pain is localized to a single organ, some specialists may wish to consider using an end organ term such as “Bladder Pain Syndrome.” Urological pain syndromes include bladder pain syndrome, which is often termed as interstitial cystitis.
Urological Pain Syndromes in Men
Urological pain syndromes in men include Prostate Pain Syndrome, which is often termed Chronic Prostatitis / Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome according to the National Institute of Health (NIH) classification of chronic prostatitis.
Do you suffer from back pain? Check out these tips from the medical literature to minimize your risk of back pain while sitting, bending, lifting, or during prolonged periods of standing.
Prevalence of Low Back Pain
Lower back pain is becoming a growing problem in industrialized countries accounting for up to $50 billion spent per year in the United States alone (2000). Ninety percent of the budget is spent on 10 percent of patients who have persistent chronic pain lasting longer than three months (1).
Chronic back pain, often with associated leg pain, is the most common medical complaint in developed countries, (Bigos, et al. 1994). Headache is its only peer (Lawrence, 1977). A complaint of back pain is the most common reason for early Social Security disability in the USA. The disability issues are so important that several countries and many organizations have convened to examine the problem, (Anderson, 1996). (2)
Tips to Minimize Risk of Back Pain – While Standing:
Posture techniques that help avoid lower back pain while standing:
Maintain good abdominal tone; keep abdomen flattened while standing.
When prolonged standing is necessary, place one foot on a step for a few minutes.
Wear cushion-soled shoes for prolonged standing.
While Bending, Lifting, or Carrying:
Posture techniques that help avoid back pain while bending, lifting or carrying:
Bend at the knees, not at the waist.
Lift with the thighs (keep heavy objects centered close to abdomen).
Flex knees while bending.
When carrying heavy objects, turn with the feet, not by twisting the trunk.
While Sitting and Lying:
Posture techniques that help avoid back pain while sitting and lying:
Sit on a straight-backed, firm, supportive chair.
Sit only for short periods.
Sleep on your back with your knees bent, or on your side on a firm mattress.
Avoid prolonged standing, prolonged sitting, and improper lifting (1).
Classifications of Low Back Pain with or Without Sciatica
“Transient– Self-limited; duration is hours to days; comes to medical attention when an episode of pain occurs.
“Acute– Self-limited, but protracted; duration is days to weeks; often seen by physicians; treatment is symptomatic; most recover spontaneously; evaluation and treatment required for severe symptoms.
“Persistent– Lasts more than 3-6 months; does not relent with time; high correlation with degeneration of the spine (spondylitis disease); surgical intervention occurs mostly in this group.
“Chronic Pain Syndrome– Lasts more than 6 months; worsens with time; associated with major co-morbidities (other conditions that also cause the same problem). ” (2)
Classifications of Low Back Pain
“Acute low back pain– generally defined as pain which lasts from a few days to a few months. Back pain with or without leg radiation is common (sciatica).
“Persistent low back pain– Progressively leads to the chronic state, defined by preoccupation with pain, depression, anxiety, and disability.” (2)
Management of chronic back / leg pain:
Restore strength: Along the spine first.
Restore general conditioning.
Teach posture and body mechanics. (2)
Kelley’s Textbook of Internal Medicine, Fourth Edition, 2000, “Approach to the Patient with Back Pain,” written by Glen S. O’Sullivan, U.S.A.
Textbook of Pain, 4th Edition, 1999, “Chronic Back Pain,” written by Donlin M. Long, U.S.A.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are also known as Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) and Repetitive Motion Disorders (RMDs) and overuse syndromes as well as repetitive strain injuries (RSIs). Learn more now about some of the most common MSDs seen in office workers which can be called by any of the names mentioned in this article.
MSDs are common in office workers
The U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration defines musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) as “injuries and disorders of the soft tissues (muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints and cartilage) and nervous system. They can affect nearly all tissues, including the nerves and tendon sheaths, and most frequently involve the arms and back.”
Up to 85 percent of the population will suffer from musculoskeletal pain.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are known by many names, such as cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs).
MSDs are also called repetitive motion disorders (RMDs), overuse syndromes, repetitive strain injuries, and “office syndrome.”
Whatever the name, you’ll feel the pain.
“A rose by any other name would smell as sweet.”
William Shakespeare, Romeo and Juliet
Poor ergonomic posture can cause MSDs
When workers sit or stand in a posture that is not ergonomically correct, they can experience musculoskeletal pain.
Because musculoskeletal pain and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are a major source of suffering, health care, and utilization of compensation, there is a definite need for prevention (2).
OSHA – MSDs have a variety of names
Ergonomics: The Study of Work, OSHA 3125, page 2, states “Occupational safety and health professionals have called these disorders a variety of names, including cumulative trauma disorders, repeated trauma, repetitive stress injuries, and occupational overexertion syndrome.”
Cumulative Trauma Disorders (CTDs) defined by PEOSH:
“Cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs) are injuries of the musculoskeletal and nervous systems that may be caused by repetitive tasks, forceful exertions, vibrations, mechanical compression (pressing against hard surfaces) or sustained or awkward positions. Cumulative trauma disorders are also called repetitive motion disorders (RMDs), overuse syndromes, regional musculoskeletal disorders, repetitive motion injuries, or repetitive strain injuries.”
Public Employees Occupational Safety and Health Program, New Jersey Department of Health and Senior Services, “PEOSH Cumulative Trauma Disorders in Office Workers” December 1, 1997
Musculoskeletal Disorders in office workers:
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome – a compression of the median nerve in the wrist that may be caused by swelling and irritation of tendons and tendon sheaths.
Tendinitis – An inflammation (swelling) or irritation of a tendon. It develops when the tendon is repeatedly tensed from overuse or unaccustomed use of the hand, wrist, arm, or shoulder.
Tenosynovitis – An inflammation (swelling) or irritation of a tendon sheath associated with extreme flexion and extension of the wrist.
Low Back Disorders – These include pulled or strained muscles, ligaments, tendons, or ruptured disks. They may be caused by cumulative effects of faulty body mechanics, poor posture, and/or improper lifting techniques.
Synovitis – An inflammation (swelling) or irritation of a synovial lining (joint lining).
DeQuervain’s Disease – A type of synovitis that involves the base of the thumb.
Bursitis – An inflammation (swelling) or irritation of the connective tissue surrounding a joint, usually of the shoulder.
Epicondylitis – Elbow pain associated with extreme rotation of the forearm and bending of the wrist. The condition is also called tennis elbow or golfer’s elbow.
Thoracic Outlet Syndrome – a compression of nerves and blood vessels between the first rib, clavicle (collar bone), and accompanying muscles as they leave the thorax (chest) and enter the shoulder.”
Cervical Radiculopathy – A compression of the nerve roots in the neck.
Ulnar Nerve Entrapment – A compression of the ulnar nerve in the wrist.
Symptoms of MSDs or CTDs
The following symptoms may involve the back, shoulders, elbows, wrists, or fingers. If symptoms last for at least one week or if they occur on many occasions a doctor should be consulted.
Decreased joint motion,
Cracking or popping of joints
MSDs can be caused by work and non-work activities
These disorders can result from work and other than work activities that involve repetitive motions or sustained awkward postures, such as sports or hobbies.
“These painful and sometimes crippling disorders develop gradually over periods of weeks, months, or years. . .Work and non-work activities may together contribute to cumulative trauma disorders. These disorders can also be aggravated by medical conditions such as diabetes, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, multiple myeloma, thyroid disorders, amyloid disease and pregnancy.”
“PEOSH Cumulative Trauma Disorders in Office Workers” December 1, 1997
Public Employees Occupational Safety & Health, State of NJ, 1997.
Textbook of Pain, 1998, “Prevention of Disability due to Chronic Musculoskeletal Pain,” written by Steven James Litton
U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration, OSHA 3125 2000 (Revised), “Ergonomics: The Study of Work”
The most important thing to remember while pushing during delivery of your baby is to have confidence that you can do it. Stay positive, and trust that your body knows what to do. These tips on pushing while delivering a baby are from Darren Salinger, M.D., OB/GYN.
There are only two ways to deliver a baby:
A natural delivery, or
“Aah, push it, push it good. Aah, push it, push it rea’ good. Oooh, baby, Baby, baby, Oooh, baby.”
Salt N Pepa, 1987
These are tips to effect a natural delivery. Sometimes even after a long time of pushing, a person may need a cesarean delivery.
There are a few steps to remember to make pushing more effective, which means less time in labour.
Positive thinking is important.
Your body knows what it needs to do.
Specific information for when a contraction begins:
First, take a deep breath like you are going under water. This step gives you power.
Second, hold your breath and curl up around your baby while lying on your back with your head at a comfortable elevation. This means bring your chin forward to your chest and bring your knees back toward your chest.
Note: This is when people (at the hospital where you are delivering) may help hold the bottoms of your feet.
Third, bear down like a bowel movement.
To repeat these three steps:
Take a deep breath and hold it.
Counting during the contraction:
Some people like a slow steady count while pushing, such as when doing exercise. A steady push for three sets of counting from 1 to 10 is a common practice. Another method is to have someone time 10 seconds and let the person pushing down know when the time is up.
Some other considerations while pushing:
Rest your shoulders;
Rest your face;
Try not to push with your legs;
Try not to waste energy by hyperventilating, extra motion, extra sounds
Dealing with your support people during labor and delivery:
Keep in mind people may say words such as “harder” or “faster” or “give more effort”. Don’t get frustrated. Keep your focus.
You do not need to push harder, or faster, or more.
Slow, steady, controlled pushing is the way to go.
Fear and anxiety during labor and delivery:
There comes a time when people worry that if they continue pushing, they may hurt themselves.
Please remember this is what the body is made to do. When you get to the time when this sensation is felt, push past the point of fear; and have confidence that you will not hurt yourself.
Dyspareunia is defined as genital pain that occurs before, during or after intercourse. This is a common sexual problem. Dyspareunia can occur in women and men. Some sources estimate dyspareunia occurs in two-thirds of all women. The medical literature does not quantify the number of men with this condition. Vaginal infections or infections of the prostate are the most common successfully-treated causes of dyspareunia.
Dyspareunia – Painful Sex in Women & Men
What is Dyspareunia?
Dyspareunia can be defined as difficult mating. It is not a well understood condition. This problem can be lifelong or acquired. Dyspareunia usually occurs ten years after the start of sexual activity unless it has always been present. Causes can be an infection, a skin problem, trauma, dryness, male factors, such as prostatitis as well as other physical and psychological factors.
“I hold it true, whate’er befall;
I feel it when I sorrow most;
Tis better to have loved and lost
Than never to have loved at all.”
Alfred Lord Tennyson
“Dyspareunia (difficult mating) is defined as genital pain that occurs before, during, or after intercourse. The repeated experience of pain during intercourse can cause marked distress, anxiety, and interpersonal difficulties, leading to anticipation of a negative sexual experience and eventually to sexual avoidance.”
Hemorrhoids are much more prevalent in the Western World as compared with Third World Countries. Hemorrhoids are associated with constipation, heavy physical work and the effects of erect posture. Hemorrhoids are common during pregnancy. In addition to hemorrhoids, industrialized countries are at an increased risk for colorectal cancer. If you suspect you have hemorrhoids, always talk to your doctor. Do not self-diagnose!
Hemorrhoids are one of the most frequent problems people in westernized countries face. An estimated 50 percent of those over the age of 50 years require some type of conservative or operative therapy. (4)
There are estimates of up to 75 to 90 percent occurrence rates of hemorrhoids in the U.S. population (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).
The cost to the community, both financial and in lost work days, is great; and by any standards, this condition must be considered a major health hazard (7).
Hemorrhoids have plagued men and women for centuries, inflicting pain equally on individuals at all levels of society and of all occupations: Emperors (Napoleon); U.S. Presidents (Jimmy Carter); baseball sluggers (George Brett); judges; policemen; truck drivers; cab drivers; and jockeys (6). It has been said that Napoleon’s hemorrhoids were troubling him during the battle of Waterloo (7, 9).
“I saw a sign one time that said ‘Hemorrhoids awareness week’ at the doctor’s office. Let me tell you, if you got hemorrhoids, I am sure you are aware of it. You don’t need a sign to tell anybody about it.”
Larry the Cable Guy
What are hemorrhoids?
A hemorrhoid is defined as “a mass of dilated, tortuous veins in the ano-rectum involving the venous plexuses of that area.”
Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, Edition 18
There are internal hemorrhoids and external hemorrhoids. Internal hemorrhoids are higher up in the rectum and cause rectal bleeding. External hemorrhoids protrude into and beyond the anal opening and cause itching, swelling, bleeding and pain. People with external hemorrhoids seek relief from products such as “Preparation H.”
Hemorrhoids in The Western World
Today, hemorrhoids are considered to be one of the most common ills of men and women, a judgment made by those with vision limited to the Western World (7).
Hemorrhoids in “Third World Countries”
The high rate of hemorrhoids in westernized societies contrasts sharply with Third World countries. Only about one in 25 to one in 30 individuals is thought to have hemorrhoids compared to one in two individuals in Westernized societies. One doctor recounted in 30 years’ practice in Africa, one of the only two patients he saw with severe hemorrhoids was a prince taking a semi-European diet (5, 7).
What causes hemorrhoids?
Hemorrhoids are thought to be caused by, or associated with, increased intra-abdominal pressure resulting from:
chronic straining to pass constipated stools,
heavy physical work, or
the effects of erect posture (3).
If constipated, hemorrhoids tend to worsen. Try not to strain when you have a bowel movement. Eat a diet high in fiber; and, if necessary take a fiber supplement daily with a lot of water.
Pregnancy is a risk factor for hemorrhoids
“About 40 percent of pregnant women develop symptoms they attribute to hemorrhoids (Simmons, S. C. 1972).”
Pregnancy may predispose women to hemorrhoids because of:
a) increased intra abdominal pressure from the pregnant uterus,
c) hormonal venous dilation (hemorrhoidal tissue contains high levels of estrogen receptors, Saint-Pierre, A., et al., 1982), and
d) increased circulating blood volume (3).
Hemorrhoid problems are more common in pregnancy. The large uterus can compress veins which return blood from the legs and rectum promoting swelling. Also labor and delivery generates tremendous stress on hemorrhoids. Manage hemorrhoids the best you can before and after labor and delivery of your baby.
Hemorrhoids are common among driving workers
External compression from poorly designed seating concentrates forces on small areas of the body. This results in high localized pressure.
The pressure can compress nerves, vessels, and other soft tissues, resulting in tissue-specific damage. These changes may themselves result in disease or predispose other tissues to damage.
Medical studies have shown a high rate of hemorrhoids among truck drivers, cab drivers, and even police officers. This could be due to the additional ergonomic risk factor of vibrations during driving.
Heavy lifting, standing in the cold and medications can aggravate hemorrhoids
Heavy lifting aggravates the problem. Try to avoid it.
Standing out in the cold with insufficient clothing causes you to shiver and tense your abdomen, which is considered to be straining by some doctors. The recommendation is to stay bundled up when standing out in the cold.
Also medications, such as codeine, can cause constipation which could cause a hemorrhoidal flair up.
Minimize external compression to reduce risk factors for hemorrhoids
Preventative measures to reduce risk factors for the development of hemorrhoids should be taken before it is too late. It is important to minimize external compression from poorly designed seating as much as possible.
Standing can cause hemorrhoids to swell
“Also, when you are standing, the pressure in your hemorrhoids increases, and they tend to swell more. Periods of rest — sitting and especially lying down — can be very beneficial if you are suffering with hemorrhoids.”
Joseph R. Duba, M.D., “Understanding Hemorrhoids”
Hemorrhoids are the most common cause of rectal pain and/bleeding
The term hemorrhoids can be misleading because patients often attribute all rectal complaints to hemorrhoids. Rectal pain and/or bleeding are common complaints among the general population. Hemorrhoids are the most common cause of these complaints.
Discuss hemorrhoidal symptoms with your doctor
The public and some members of the medical profession deem these symptoms, which are commonly attributed to hemorrhoids, harmless. However, the same set of symptoms can herald serious colorectal disease. Feelings of embarrassment or apprehension about treatment may make individuals reluctant to discuss rectal symptoms with their physician (4).
Do not be embarrassed to discuss rectal problems with your care-giver because if it is discovered to be colorectal cancer, and it is detected early, there is an 85 percent cure rate (2).
Industrialized Countries at Increased Risk of Colorectal Cancer
Industrialized countries are at a relatively increased risk (for colorectal cancer) compared to less developed countries that traditionally had high fiber/low fat diets.
“This point is exemplified by the fact that persons from a low risk country who migrate to the United States over time develop colorectal cancer rates similar to those among native U.S. citizens.”
Fry, R., et al., 1989; Levin K., et al., 1991
Smoking Increases Risk of Colorectal Cancer
“Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have been reported to increase the relative risk of an individual to develop colorectal cancer, (Kune, G., et al. 1992; Martinez, M., et al., 1995).”
Complaints that can be Confused with Hemorrhoids
“Anorectal disorders represent some of the most common yet poorly understood conditions in primary care.” (2) Patients often attribute all anorectal complaints to hemorrhoids.
Other conditions include:
Anal fissures (tares);
Anorectal abscesses (infection);
Fistula (channel) ;
Pruritus ani (itching and burning of the anal skin);
Infectious proctitis (rectal inflammation);
Hidradenitis suppurativa (disease of sweat gland);
Condyloma acuminatium (genital warts);
Anal carcinoma (cancer).
Anal fissure – A fissure is a crack or tear in the anal mucosa usually caused by the passage of a hard stool. “Nearly half of the patients present with the complaint of hemorrhoids,” (Mazier, WP, 1994).
Anorectal abscess– An anorectal abscess results from cellulitis or infection (Stahl T.H., 1992). Anorectal abscesses usually are obvious, producing diffuse swelling, redness, and pain around the anus. Most abscesses are aggravated by sitting, coughing, sneezing and defecation (Goligher, J., et al., 1984).
Anal fistula – A tract from the rectum to the surrounding skin that bowel contents can escape from. Anal fistulas are predominantly found in middle aged men. (Goligher J. et al., 1984)
Anal incontinence – Loss of control of flatus and feces. Young patients with incontinence may suffer enlargement of the colon from chronic constipation or trauma to the anal sphincter apparatus (Goligher, J. Et al. 1984).
“Older women are particularly at risk for incontinence due to progressive denervation (loss of nerves) of the pelvic floor musculature (muscles) from prior birth-related injury.”
Toglia, M.R., 1996
Pruritus ani– intense itching and burning discomfort of the perianal skin.
Excessive cleaning of the anal area with soap and water can cause big problems if you are suffering with hemorrhoid pain / irritation because you remove the natural oils from the area. The area should be kept lubricated with Vaseline if necessary.
When you are having external hemorrhoid pain/irritation, make sure that you use toilet tissue with added lotion, (for example Puffs Plus).
Proctitis – an inflammation limited to the distal 10 cm of the rectum (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1993).
Hidradenitis suppurativa – a chronic inflammatory disease of the sweat glands of the skin (Goligher, J. Et al., 1984). It is usually common in people with oily skin.
Anal condylomas – warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV). It is known that HPV is linked to cervical cancer in women. “Anal warts appear to be most common in young men especially those engaging in anal intercourse,” (Tedesco, F., et al., 1980).
1. Primary Care, Volume 26, Number 1, March, 1999, “Hemorrhoids,” by Joy N. Hussain, M.D., Cairns Base Hospital, Australia.
2. Family Medicine Principles & Practices, 1998, Fifth Edition: Chapter 91, “Diseases of the Rectum and Anus,” by Thomas J. Zuber; 2b.
3. Family Medicine Principles & Practices, 1998, Fifth Edition: Chapter 92, “Colorectal Cancer,” written by Gregory L. Brotzman and Russell G. Robertson.
4. MJA, Vol. 167, July, 1997, Clinical Practice, “Hemorrhoids: A Clinical Update,” written by Adrian L. Polglase, M.S., FRACS, Clinical Associate Professor and Colorectal Surgeon, Australia.
5. American Family Physician, September 1, 1995, “Non-surgical Treatment Options for Internal Hemorrhoids, written by John Pfenninger, M.D., and James Surrel, M.D.
6. Surgical Clinics of North America, Vol. 65, No. 6, December, 1988, “Hemorrhoids, Non-operative Management,” written by A. R. Dennison, M.D.; D.C., Wherry, M.D.; and D.L. Morris, M.D., Ph.D.
7. Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 5, May, 1988, “Alternatives in the Treatment of Hemorrhoidal Disease,” by Emmet F. Ferguson, Jr., M.D., University of Florida, School of Medicine, Jacksonville, F.L., U.S.A.
8. Postgraduate Medical Journal, September, 1975, 51, 631-636, “Hemorrhoids – Postulated Pathogenesis and Proposed Prevention,” written by D. P. Burkitt, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.C.S., F.R.S., and C.W. Graham-Stewart, MS, F.R.C.S.
9. The American Journal of Proctology, Vol. 21, No. 3, June 1970, “An Epidemiological Investigation of Hemorrhoids, written by John Philpot, Ph.D., Rutgers, The State University, New Jersey, U.S.A
10. “Napoleon’s Hemorrhoids and Other Small Events that Changed,” History by Phil Mason
“A History of Seating in the Western World,” is a research paper written by Kim Gurr, who was seeking her Postgraduate Diploma in Ergonomics Research under the supervision of Leon Straker, Physiotherapy and Phillip Moore, Social Sciences; however, Ms. Gurr died before completing her ergonomics research. This research paper covers the 5,000 year period beginning with the Egyptian Era through today’s modern ergonomists.
A History of Seating in the Western World
“A History of Seating in the Western World,” is a research paper based on the Postgraduate Diploma in Ergonomics Research project performed by Kim Gurr under the supervision of Leon Straker, Physiotherapy, and Phillip Moore, Social Sciences, at the Curtin University of Technology in Perth, Western Australia.
Unfortunately, Kim died before finalizing her research.
History of Seating is Important for Ergonomics
Seating is an important issue for contemporary ergonomics. Its frequent use by humans and its association with musculoskeletal disorders are just some of the reasons for its importance.
To understand the place of seating in modern Western societies, it is useful to understand its history.
This paper presents an overview of the ancient history of seating and the modern history of Western seating with particular emphasis on the design influences over the past 5,000 year period.
History of Seating begins with the Egyptians
The history of supporting sitting or seating has a long and colorful history beginning, at least, with the Egyptians some 3,000 B.C.
The historical knowledge summarized here is distilled from a great variety of texts, for it seems our fascination with the chair is as alive today as it was in ancient times.
It should be noted that despite the huge amount of information documented on seat types, only three types of distinctly different seats developed.
The changes that take place during the short span of human pregnancy are profound. Many of these changes occur soon after fertilization and continue throughout the entire pregnancy. Most of these incredible adaptations are in response to the growing fetus and the hormonal changes the fetus produces in its mother.
Changes…Start at 4-5 Weeks of Pregnancy
Most women will notice subtle changes as early as four to five weeks of pregnancy.
The first changes to be noticed are:
Breast tenderness (sometimes with nipple discharge);
Heightened sense of smell (your favorite food or perfume may be intolerable);
Nausea with or without vomiting (this is called morning sickness, but often this problem can occur throughout the day);
Increased frequency of headaches;
Increased frequency of heartburn; and
Pelvic cramping or tenderness.
Usually these conditions go away spontaneously at about 14 to 16 weeks.
Should I listen to what my friends and family say?
Most pregnant women are given more information than they care to hear from family and friends during the entire course of the pregnancy. Many statements often told are not true and only serve to heighten anxiety and stress. Just because a family member has a bad story about a complication does not mean that it is going to happen to you.