Hemorrhoids

This article discusses hemorrhoids, famous people throughout history with hemorrhoids, the causes and risk factors for hemorrhoids, and conditions confused with hemorrhoids and includes references from the medical literature.

Woman holding butt in pain from hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids and conditions that can be confused with hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids are one of the most frequent problems people in westernized countries face.  There are estimates of up to 75 to 90 percent occurrence rates of hemorrhoids in the U.S. population (1, 2, 3, 4, 5).

An estimated 50 percent of those over the age of 50 years require some type of conservative or operative therapy (4). 

Famous people with hemorrhoids

Hemorrhoids have plagued men and women for centuries, inflicting pain equally on individuals at all levels of society and of all occupations: Emperors (Napoleon); U.S. Presidents (Jimmy Carter); baseball sluggers (George Brett); judges; policemen; truck drivers; cab drivers; and jockeys (6).  It has been said that Napoleon’s hemorrhoids were troubling him during the battle of Waterloo (7, 9).

The cost to the community, both financial and in lost work days, is great; and by any standards, this condition must be considered a major health hazard (7).

Hemorrhoids in “The Western World” 

Today, hemorrhoids are considered to be one of the most common ills of men and women, a judgment made by those with vision limited to the Western World (7).

Hemorrhoids in “Third World Countries”

The high rate of hemorrhoids in westernized societies contrasts sharply with Third World countries.   Only about one in 25 to one in 30 individuals is thought to have hemorrhoids compared to one in two individuals in Westernized societies. One doctor recounted in 30 years’ practice in Africa, one of the only two patients he saw with severe hemorrhoids was a prince taking a semi-European diet (5, 7).

What causes hemorrhoids?

Hemorrhoids are thought to be caused by, or associated with, increased intra-abdominal pressure resulting from: 

  • Chronic straining to pass constipated stools, 
  • Heavy physical work, or 
  • The effects of erect posture (3). 

Pregnancy is a risk factor for Hemorrhoids 

“About 40 percent of pregnant women develop symptoms they attribute to hemorrhoids (Simmons, S. C. 1972).”  

Pregnancy may predispose women to hemorrhoids because of:

  • Increased intra abdominal pressure from the pregnant uterus, 
  • Constipation, 
  • Hormonal venous dilation (hemorrhoidal tissue contains high levels of estrogen receptors, Saint-Pierre, A., et al., 1982), and 
  • Increased circulating blood volume (3).

Hemorrhoids are common among driving workers  

External compression from poorly designed seating concentrates forces on small areas of the body. This results in high localized pressure. 

The pressure can compress nerves, vessels, and other soft tissues, resulting in tissue-specific damage. These changes may themselves result in disease or predispose other tissues to damage.

Medical studies have shown a high rate of hemorrhoids among truck drivers, cab drivers, and even police officers.  This could be due to the additional ergonomic risk factor of vibrations during driving.  

Smiling trucker standing in front of a truck
Trucker standing in front of a Truck. Driving workers have increased risk of hemorrhoids.

Minimize external compression to reduce risk factors for Hemorrhoids

Preventative measures to reduce risk factors for the development of hemorrhoids should be taken before it is too late.  It is important to minimize external compression from poorly designed seating as much as possible. 

Hemorrhoids are the most common cause of rectal pain / bleeding

The term hemorrhoids can be misleading because patients often attribute all rectal complaints to hemorrhoids.  Rectal pain and/or bleeding are common complaints among the general population.  Hemorrhoids are the most common cause of these complaints. 

Colorectal Cancer can be confused with Hemorrhoids

The public and some members of the medical profession deem these symptoms, which are commonly attributed to hemorrhoids, harmless.  However, the same set of symptoms can herald serious colorectal disease.    Feelings of embarrassment or apprehension about treatment may make individuals reluctant to discuss rectal symptoms with their physician (4).  

Discuss hemorrhoidal symptoms with your doctor

Do not be embarrassed to discuss rectal problems with your care-giver because if it is discovered to be colorectal cancer, and it is detected early, there is an 85 percent cure rate (2). 

Industrialized countries at increased risk of Colorectal Cancer

Industrialized countries are at a relatively increased risk (for colorectal cancer) compared to less developed countries that traditionally had high fiber/low fat diets.  

“This point is exemplified by the fact that persons from a low risk country who migrate to the United States over time develop colorectal cancer rates similar to those among native U.S. Citizen.”

(Fry, R., et al., 1989; Levin K. et al., 1991).

Smoking increases risk of Colorectal Cancer

“Cigarette smoking and alcohol consumption have been reported to increase the relative risk of an individual to develop colorectal cancer.”  

(Kune, G., et al. 1992; Martinez, M., et al., 1995).

Rectal complaints that can be confused with Hemorrhoids:

“Anorectal disorders represent some of the most common yet poorly understood conditions in primary care.” (2). Patients often attribute all anorectal complaints to hemorrhoids.  

Other conditions include: 

  • Anal fissures (tares); 
  • Abscesses (infection); 
  • Fistula (channel); 
  • Incontinence; 
  • Pruritus Ani (itching and burning of the anal skin); 
  • Infectious proctitis (rectal inflammation); 
  • Hidradenitis suppurativa (disease of sweat gland); 
  • Condyloma acuminatium (genital warts);  
  • Anal carcinoma (cancer). 

Anal fissures

Anal fissure – A fissure is a crack or tear in the anal mucosa usually caused by the passage of a hard stool.  

“Nearly half of the patients present with the complaint of hemorrhoids.”

(Mazier, WP, 1994).

Anorectal abscess

Anorectal abscess – An anorectal abscess results from cellulitis or infection  (Stahl T.H., 1992).  Anorectal abscesses usually are obvious, producing diffuse swelling, redness, and pain around the anus.  

“Most abscesses are aggravated by sitting, coughing, sneezing and defecation.”  

(Goligher, J., et al., 1984).

Anal fistula

Anal fistula – A tract from the rectum to the surrounding skin that bowel contents can escape from. 

“Anal fistulas are predominantly found in middle aged men.”

(Goligher J. et al., 1984)

Anal incontinence

Anal incontinence – Loss of control of flatus and feces. 

“Young patients with incontinence may suffer enlargement of the colon from chronic constipation or trauma to the anal sphincter apparatus.”

(Goligher, J. Et al. 1984).

“Older women are particularly at risk for incontinence due to progressive denervation (loss of nerves) of the pelvic floor musculature (muscles) from prior birth-related injury.”

(Toglia, M.R., 1996).

Pruritus ani 

Pruritus ani – intense itching and burning discomfort of the perianal skin.

Infectious Proctitis 

Proctitis – an inflammation limited to the distal 10 cm of the rectum (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 1993).

Hidradenitis suppurativa

Hidradenitis suppurativa – a chronic inflammatory disease of the sweat glands of the skin (Goligher, J. Et al., 1984).  It is usually common in people with oily skin.  

Anal condylomas (warts)

Anal condylomas – warts are caused by the human papilloma virus (HPV).  It is known that HPV is linked to cervical cancer in women.

“Anal warts appear to be most common in young men especially those engaging in anal intercourse.”

(Tedesco, F., et al., 1980)

References:

  1. Primary Care, Volume 26, Number 1, March, 1999, “Hemorrhoids,” by Joy N. Hussain, M.D., Cairns Base Hospital, Australia.
  2. Family Medicine Principles & Practices, 1998, Fifth Edition: Chapter 91, “Diseases of the Rectum and Anus,” by Thomas J. Zuber; 2b.
  3. Family Medicine Principles & Practices, 1998, Fifth Edition: Chapter 92, “Colorectal Cancer,” written by Gregory L. Brotzman and Russell G. Robertson. 
  4. MJA, Vol. 167, July, 1997, Clinical Practice, “Hemorrhoids: A Clinical Update,” written by Adrian L. Polglase, M.S., FRACS, Clinical Associate Professor and Colorectal Surgeon, Australia.
  5. American Family Physician, September 1, 1995, “Non-surgical Treatment Options for Internal Hemorrhoids, written by John Pfenninger, M.D., and James Surrel, M.D.
  6.  Surgical Clinics of North America, Vol. 65, No. 6, December, 1988, “Hemorrhoids, Non-operative Management,” written by A. R. Dennison, M.D.; D.C., Wherry, M.D.; and D.L. Morris, M.D., Ph.D.
  7. Southern Medical Journal, Vol. 81, No. 5, May, 1988, “Alternatives in the Treatment of Hemorrhoidal Disease,” by Emmet F. Ferguson, Jr., M.D., University of Florida, School of Medicine, Jacksonville, F.L., U.S.A.
  8. Postgraduate Medical Journal, September, 1975, 51, 631-636, “Hemorrhoids – Postulated Pathogenesis and Proposed Prevention,” written by D. P. Burkitt, C.M.G., M.D., F.R.C.S., F.R.S., and C.W. Graham-Stewart, MS, F.R.C.S.
  9. The American Journal of Proctology, Vol. 21, No. 3, June 1970, “An Epidemiological Investigation of Hemorrhoids, written by John Philpot, Ph.D., Rutgers, The State University, New Jersey, U.S.A
  10. “Napoleon’s Hemorrhoids and Other Small Events that Changed,” History by Phil Mason

 

Author: Melanie Loomos

I was a court reporter for 10 years then became an inventor. I invented The Buttpillow™ and was granted a patent called the "Pillow with Cantilever Supports." At the same time, I also submitted a patent for "The Carpal Tunnel Chair," which I was advised I did not get. After R&D on The Buttpillow™, the patent for the "Ergonomic Seating Cushion" was filed and later amended to include an embodiment for women during pregnancy. The USPTO granted the "Ergonomic Seating Cushion" patent in late 2002. Subsequently, in 2003, I also invented Ergosoft™ break reminder software to remind people to take breaks with an Ergo-Tip™ so people can identify and minimize ergonomic risk factors around them.

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