“The study of history can sometimes fool us into the belief that societies progressively improve on what has come before, as our body of knowledge increases. It seems we do not march slowly forward to an ultimate solution in this regard, but rather we tend to reinvent and then forget.” Kim Gurr
“A History of Seating in the Western World” discusses seating beginning with ancient Egypt through the modern ergonomics professional. It is a research paper based on the Postgraduate Diploma in Ergonomics Research project performed by Kim Gurr under the supervision of Leon Straker, Physiotherapy, and Phillip Moore, Social Sciences, at the Curtin University of Technology in Perth, Western Australia. Unfortunately, Ms. Gurr died before finalizing her research.
Seating is Important for Ergonomics
Seating is an important issue for contemporary ergonomics. Its frequent use by humans and its association with musculoskeletal disorders are just some of the reasons for its importance.
Ancient History of Seating through the Modern History of Western Seating
To understand the place of seating in modern Western societies, it is useful to understand its history.
This paper presents an overview of the ancient history of seating and the modern history of Western seating with particular emphasis on the design influences over the past 5,000 year period.
“Low back pain is one of the most common reasons for lost work time and Workers’ Compensation claims,” (Chase, J.A., et al., 1991).
Low back pain is common among sitting individuals
In a study of the relationship between lordosis (the curve of the spine) and sitting, researchers (Keegan JJ) found the most important factor in low back pain with prolonged sitting to be decreased trunk-thigh angle with consequent flattening of the lumbar spine. The flattening of the lumbar curve happens when an individuals slouches or leans forward often while sitting on a flat seat surface.
Hemorrhoids are common. Women during pregnancy have a high incidence of hemorrhoids. Some causes can be minimized such as prolonged sitting, prolonged standing, heavy lifting and others. Evidence shows a relationship between hemorrhoids and erectile dysfunction in people younger than 30. Hemorrhoidal Prostatic Impotence Syndrome was named in the 1940’s.
What is a hemorrhoid?
A hemorrhoid can be described as a big, bulging varicose vein in the rectum.
A hemorrhoid is defined as a “mass of dilated, tortuous veins in the ano-rectum involving the venous plexuses of that area.” – Taber’s Cyclopedic Medical Dictionary, Edition 18. Syn. Pile – a single hemorrhoid; or Piles – hemorrhoids.
Changes during pregnancy, such as constipation, hemorrhoids, heartburn, pelvic pain, and back pain are discussed as well as what to expect when you go to the hospital for a vaginal delivery.
This document about Pregnancy and Labor and Delivery of a baby was written by Darren Salinger, M.D., OB/GYN with answers to questions frequently asked by patents during his more than 20 years of practice.
What to expect during Pregnancy
The changes that take place during the short span of human pregnancy are profound.
Many of these changes occur soon after fertilization and continue throughout the entire pregnancy. Most of these incredible adaptations are in response to the growing fetus and the hormonal changes the fetus produces in its mother.
This document explains how to complete OSHA Forms 300, 300-A, and 301 and when to keep a separate confidential list for “privacy concern” cases. It was written by John Loomos, Esq. formerly of ALPA and Eastern Air Lines. A 2018 Department of Labor Trade Release informed employers they must electronically submit information from Form 300, 300-A, and 301 to OSHA. Form 300-A, the Summary, must be posted no later than February 1 each year even if there are no injuries (it must be posted with zeros in the total lines) and provided to employees. The Government representatives authorized to receive records are listed. Any OSHA Survey or Bureau of Labor Statistics Survey must be promptly completed and returned.
OSHA Record-keeping Forms
The following document explaining how to fill out OSHA’s required record-keeping forms —
Form 300, the Log of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses;
Form 300-A, the Summary of Work-Related Injuries and Illnesses reported on Form 300; and
Form 301, the Injury and Illness Incident Report,
— was written by John Loomos, Esq., in 2002.
April 30, 2018, DOL Trade Release
According to a U.S. Department of Labor Trade Release dated April 30, 2018, notice was given that OSHA had taken action to correct an error made with regard to implementation of the final rule.
OSHA determined that Section 18 (c) (7) of the Occupational Safety and Health Act and relevant OSHA regulations pertaining to State Plans, require all affected employers to submit injury and illness data in the Injury Tracking Application (ITA) Online Portal even if the employer is covered by a State Plan that has not completed adoption of their own state rule. Employers must electronically submit information from the Form 300, Form 300A, and Form 301 to OSHA by July 1, 2018.
The records kept on paper (prior to the 2018 requirement to submit electronically) must be kept for five years.
This article discusses the four prostatitis syndromes defined by the National Institutes of Health. It also includes the many names prostatitis has been called in the past and describes its new classification as Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome (CPPS) by the European Association of Urologists. Research indicates CPPS impairs quality of life to a similar degree as a heart attack or Chron’s disease.
Problems associated with prostatitis
Problems associated with prostatitis include: Hesitant Urination, urinary urgency, burning sensation (dysuria), frequent urination (nocturne), pain in the groin, infertility, painful ejaculation or dyspareunia.
Causes of prostatitis include pelvic trauma (Horse Riding or Cycling) and prolonged sitting.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are very common, but few people know what they are until they are suffering with pain. This document contains a list of common MSDs that can occur in people prior to entering the work-force because people use computers now for fun.
MSDs are common in office workers
The U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration defines musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) as “injuries and disorders of the soft tissues (muscles, tendons, ligaments, joints and cartilage) and nervous system. They can affect nearly all tissues, including the nerves and tendon sheaths, and most frequently involve the arms and back.”
Up to 85 percent of the population will suffer from musculoskeletal pain.
Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are known by many names, such as cumulative trauma disorders (CTDs).
MSDs are also called repetitive motion disorders (RMDs), overuse syndromes, repetitive strain injuries, and “office syndrome.”
You can reduce risk factors for the development of neck and shoulder pain. Some of the things to avoid are prolonged sitting with the neck bent forward; holding a phone between the shoulder and ear; bending the head back (looking up) for long periods.
Neck and shoulder pain are common among younger and younger people and can be caused by musculoskeletal disorders of the upper extremities. Preventative measures should be taken to minimize risk factors for neck and shoulder pain before you are in pain.
The risk factors for and causes of neck and shoulder pain as well as preventative measures for the development of neck and shoulder pain found in the medical research are listed here.
Chronic pelvic pain (CPP) occurs in women and men. The American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) definition applies to women. The European Association of Urologists (EAU) revised their guidelines beginning in 2009 to include women and men in their definition of chronic pelvic pain. Chronic pelvic pain is a bladder pain syndrome that occurs in women and men. Urological pain syndromes in men include chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome (CPPS).
Historically, chronic pelvic pain (CPP), was defined by the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG) and applied to women.
In 2009, the European Association of Urology (EAU) published Guidelines on chronic pelvic pain (CPP). Their stated objective was “to revise guidelines for the diagnosis, therapy, and follow-up of CPP patients.”